Flask itself is changing like any software is changing over time. Most of the changes are the nice kind, the kind where you don’t have to change anything in your code to profit from a new release.
However every once in a while there are changes that do require some changes in your code or there are changes that make it possible for you to improve your own code quality by taking advantage of new features in Flask.
This section of the documentation enumerates all the changes in Flask from release to release and how you can change your code to have a painless updating experience.
command to upgrade your existing Flask installation by
$ pip install --upgrade Flask
Changes to send_file
is no longer automatically inferred from file-like objects.
This means that the following code will no longer automatically have
support, etag generation or MIME-type guessing:
response = send_file(open('/path/to/file.txt'))
Any of the following is functionally equivalent:
fname = '/path/to/file.txt' # Just pass the filepath directly response = send_file(fname) # Set the MIME-type and ETag explicitly response = send_file(open(fname), mimetype='text/plain') response.set_etag(...) # Set `attachment_filename` for MIME-type guessing # ETag still needs to be manually set response = send_file(open(fname), attachment_filename=fname) response.set_etag(...)
The reason for this is that some file-like objects have an invalid or even
attribute. Silently swallowing errors in such cases was not
a satisfying solution.
Additionally the default of falling back to
been restricted. If Flask can’t guess one or the user didn’t provide one, the
function fails if no filename information was provided.
0.11 is an odd release in the Flask release cycle because it was supposed to be the 1.0 release. However because there was such a long lead time up to the release we decided to push out a 0.11 release first with some changes removed to make the transition easier. If you have been tracking the master branch which was 1.0 you might see some unexpected changes.
In case you did track the master branch you will notice that flask --app is removed now. You need to use the environment variable to specify an application.
Flask 0.11 removed the
attribute from Flask
applications. Instead the new
be used to disable the default log handlers and custom log handlers can be
The behavior of error handlers was changed.
The precedence of handlers used to be based on the decoration/call order of
Now the inheritance hierarchy takes precedence and handlers for more
specific exception classes are executed instead of more general ones.
Trying to register a handler on an instance now raises
There used to be a logic error allowing you to register handlers only for exception instances . This was unintended and plain wrong, and therefore was replaced with the intended behavior of registering handlers only using exception classes and HTTP error codes.
function has changed to
autoescape template variables by default. This better matches the behavior
Extension imports of the form
are deprecated, you should use
The old form still works, but Flask will issue a
for each extension you import the old
way. We also provide a migration utility called
that is supposed to
automatically rewrite your imports for this.
The biggest change going from 0.9 to 0.10 is that the cookie serialization format changed from pickle to a specialized JSON format. This change has been done in order to avoid the damage an attacker can do if the secret key is leaked. When you upgrade you will notice two major changes: all sessions that were issued before the upgrade are invalidated and you can only store a limited amount of types in the session. The new sessions are by design much more restricted to only allow JSON with a few small extensions for tuples and strings with HTML markup.
In order to not break people’s sessions it is possible to continue using the old session system by using the Flask-OldSessions extension.
Flask also started storing the
object on the application
context instead of the request context. This change should be transparent
for you but it means that you now can store things on the
when there is no request context yet but an application context. The old
attribute was renamed to
The behavior of returning tuples from a function was simplified. If you
return a tuple it no longer defines the arguments for the response object
you’re creating, it’s now always a tuple in the form
where at least one item has to be provided. If you depend on
the old behavior, you can add it easily by subclassing Flask:
class TraditionalFlask(Flask): def make_response(self, rv): if isinstance(rv, tuple): return self.response_class(*rv) return Flask.make_response(self, rv)
If you maintain an extension that was using
before, please consider changing to
if it makes
sense for your extension. For instance, the app context stack makes sense for
extensions which connect to databases. Using the app context stack instead of
the request context stack will make extensions more readily handle use cases
outside of requests.
Flask introduced a new session interface system. We also noticed that
there was a naming collision between
the module that
implements sessions and
which is the global session
object. With that introduction we moved the implementation details for
the session system into a new module called
. If you
used the previously undocumented session support we urge you to upgrade.
If invalid JSON data was submitted Flask will now raise a
exception instead of letting the
bubble up. This has the advantage that you no
longer have to handle that error to avoid an internal server error showing
up for the user. If you were catching this down explicitly in the past
you will need to change this.
Due to a bug in the test client Flask 0.7 did not trigger teardown handlers when the test client was used in a with statement. This was since fixed but might require some changes in your test suites if you relied on this behavior.
In Flask 0.7 we cleaned up the code base internally a lot and did some backwards incompatible changes that make it easier to implement larger applications with Flask. Because we want to make upgrading as easy as possible we tried to counter the problems arising from these changes by providing a script that can ease the transition.
The script scans your whole application and generates a unified diff with changes it assumes are safe to apply. However as this is an automated tool it won’t be able to find all use cases and it might miss some. We internally spread a lot of deprecation warnings all over the place to make it easy to find pieces of code that it was unable to upgrade.
We strongly recommend that you hand review the generated patchfile and only apply the chunks that look good.
If you are using git as version control system for your project we
recommend applying the patch with
using the interactive commit feature to only apply the chunks that look
To apply the upgrade script do the following:
Download the script: flask-07-upgrade.py
Run it in the directory of your application:
$ python flask-07-upgrade.py > patchfile.diff
Review the generated patchfile.
Apply the patch:
$ patch -p1 < patchfile.diff
If you were using per-module template folders you need to move some templates around. Previously if you had a folder named
templatesnext to a blueprint named
adminthe implicit template path automatically was
admin/index.htmlfor a template file called
templates/index.html. This no longer is the case. Now you need to name the template
templates/admin/index.html. The tool will not detect this so you will have to do that on your own.
Please note that deprecation warnings are disabled by default starting
with Python 2.7. In order to see the deprecation warnings that might be
emitted you have to enabled them with the
If you are working with windows and you lack the
utility you can get it as part of various Unix runtime environments for
windows including cygwin, msysgit or ming32. Also source control systems
like svn, hg or git have builtin support for applying unified diffs as
generated by the tool. Check the manual of your version control system
for more information.
Bug in Request Locals
Due to a bug in earlier implementations the request local proxies now
instead of an
are unbound. If you caught these exceptions with
before, you should catch them with
function is now issuing
deprecation warnings if you depend on functionality that will be removed
in Flask 0.11. Previously it was possible to use etags and mimetypes
when file objects were passed. This was unreliable and caused issues
for a few setups. If you get a deprecation warning, make sure to
update your application to work with either filenames there or disable
etag attaching and attach them yourself.
return send_file(my_file_object) return send_file(my_file_object)
return send_file(my_file_object, add_etags=False)
Upgrading to new Teardown Handling
We streamlined the behavior of the callbacks for request handling. For
things that modify the response the
decorators continue to work as expected, but for things that absolutely
must happen at the end of request we introduced the new
decorator. Unfortunately that
change also made after-request work differently under error conditions.
It’s not consistently skipped if exceptions happen whereas previously it
might have been called twice to ensure it is executed at the end of the
If you have database connection code that looks like this:
@app.after_request def after_request(response): g.db.close() return response
You are now encouraged to use this instead:
@app.teardown_request def after_request(exception): if hasattr(g, 'db'): g.db.close()
On the upside this change greatly improves the internal code flow and makes it easier to customize the dispatching and error handling. This makes it now a lot easier to write unit tests as you can prevent closing down of database connections for a while. You can take advantage of the fact that the teardown callbacks are called when the response context is removed from the stack so a test can query the database after request handling:
with app.test_client() as client: resp = client.get('/') # g.db is still bound if there is such a thing # and here it's gone
Manual Error Handler Attaching
While it is still possible to attach error handlers to
it’s discouraged to do so and in fact
deprecated. In general we no longer recommend custom error handler
attaching via assignments to the underlying dictionary due to the more
complex internal handling to support arbitrary exception classes and
for more information.
The proper upgrade is to change this:
app.error_handlers = handle_error
Alternatively you should just attach the function with a decorator:
@app.errorhandler(403) def handle_error(e): ...
is new in Flask 0.7)
Blueprints replace the previous concept of “Modules” in Flask. They provide better semantics for various features and work better with large applications. The update script provided should be able to upgrade your applications automatically, but there might be some cases where it fails to upgrade. What changed?
Blueprints need explicit names. Modules had an automatic name guessing scheme where the shortname for the module was taken from the last part of the import module. The upgrade script tries to guess that name but it might fail as this information could change at runtime.
Blueprints have an inverse behavior for
url_for()that it should look for the endpoint
fooon the application. Now it means “relative to current module”. The script will inverse all calls to
url_for()automatically for you. It will do this in a very eager way so you might end up with some unnecessary leading dots in your code if you’re not using modules.
Blueprints do not automatically provide static folders. They will also no longer automatically export templates from a folder called
templatesnext to their location however but it can be enabled from the constructor. Same with static files: if you want to continue serving static files you need to tell the constructor explicitly the path to the static folder (which can be relative to the blueprint’s module path).
Rendering templates was simplified. Now the blueprints can provide template folders which are added to a general template searchpath. This means that you need to add another subfolder with the blueprint’s name into that folder if you want
blueprintname/template.htmlas the template name.
If you continue to use the
object which is deprecated, Flask will
restore the previous behavior as good as possible. However we strongly
recommend upgrading to the new blueprints as they provide a lot of useful
improvement such as the ability to attach a blueprint multiple times,
blueprint specific error handlers and a lot more.
Flask 0.6 comes with a backwards incompatible change which affects the order of after-request handlers. Previously they were called in the order of the registration, now they are called in reverse order. This change was made so that Flask behaves more like people expected it to work and how other systems handle request pre- and post-processing. If you depend on the order of execution of post-request functions, be sure to change the order.
Another change that breaks backwards compatibility is that context
processors will no longer override values passed directly to the template
rendering function. If for example
is as variable passed
directly to the template, the default context processor will not override
it with the current request object. This makes it easier to extend
context processors later to inject additional variables without breaking
existing template not expecting them.
Flask 0.5 is the first release that comes as a Python package instead of a single module. There were a couple of internal refactoring so if you depend on undocumented internal details you probably have to adapt the imports.
The following changes may be relevant to your application:
autoescaping no longer happens for all templates. Instead it is configured to only happen on files ending with
.xhtml. If you have templates with different extensions you should override the
Flask no longer supports zipped applications in this release. This functionality might come back in future releases if there is demand for this feature. Removing support for this makes the Flask internal code easier to understand and fixes a couple of small issues that make debugging harder than necessary.
create_jinja_loaderfunction is gone. If you want to customize the Jinja loader now, use the
For application developers there are no changes that require changes in
your code. In case you are developing on a Flask extension however, and
that extension has a unittest-mode you might want to link the activation
of that mode to the new
Flask 0.3 introduces configuration support and logging as well as categories for flashing messages. All these are features that are 100% backwards compatible but you might want to take advantage of them.
The configuration support makes it easier to write any kind of application that requires some sort of configuration. (Which most likely is the case for any application out there).
If you previously had code like this:
app.debug = DEBUG app.secret_key = SECRET_KEY
You no longer have to do that, instead you can just load a configuration into the config object. How this works is outlined in 配置管理 .
Flask now configures a logger for you with some basic and useful defaults. If you run your application in production and want to profit from automatic error logging, you might be interested in attaching a proper log handler. Also you can start logging warnings and errors into the logger when appropriately. For more information on that, read 应用错误处理 .
Categories for Flash Messages
Flash messages can now have categories attached. This makes it possible to render errors, warnings or regular messages differently for example. This is an opt-in feature because it requires some rethinking in the code.
Read all about that in the 消息闪现 pattern.